writings

Below is a bibliography of key writings on U&CD.

It begins with the primary sources of the idea in the works of Leon Trotsky. Next follows a selection of key secondary texts which preceded the current revival of interest. Finally comes a list of more recent writings – several of them downloadable from this page – which make up the contemporary literature on the subject.

If you know of further relevant writings, please post the details in the comments box at the bottom of this page.

primary sources

Trotsky, L. (1961) The History of the Russian Revolution (1932), New York: Pathfinder.

Trotsky, L. (1962) The Permanent Revolution (1930) and Results and Prospects (1906), London: New Park Publications.

Trotsky, L. (1970/1936) The Third International After Lenin, New York: Pathfinder.

Trotsky, L. (1972/1937) The Revolution Betrayed, New York: Pathfinder.

Trotsky, L. (1973) 1905 [sic], Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Trotsky, L. (1973) Leon Trotsky on Britain, introduced by G. Novack New York: Pathfinder.

Trotsky, L. (1975/1930) My Life. An Attempt at an Autobiography, Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Trotsky, Leon (1998) Trotsky’s Notebooks, 1933–1935. Writings on Lenin, Dialectics and Evolutionism, edited by Philip Pomper. New York: Columbia University Press.

key secondary texts (up to 1995)

Deutscher, I. (1954) The Prophet Armed, Trotsky: 1879–1921, Oxford: OUP.

Deutscher, I. (1959) The Prophet Unarmed, Trotsky: 1921–1929, Oxford: OUP.

Deutscher, I. (1963) The Prophet Outcast, Trotsky: 1929–1940, Oxford: OUP.

Deutscher, I. (1984) Marxism, Wars and Revolutions, London: Verso.

Elster, J. (1986) ‘The theory of combined and uneven development: a critique’, in Analytical Marxism, edited by J. Roemer, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Horowitz, D. (1969) Imperialism and Revolution: a Radical Interpretation of Contemporary History, New York: Random House.

Knei-Paz, B. (1978) The Social and Political Thought of Leon Trotsky. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Löwy, M. (1981) The Politics of Combined and Uneven Development: The Theory of Permanent Revolution, London: Verso.

Novack, G. (1972). Understanding History. Marxist Essays. New York: Pathfinder.

Novack, G. (1976). ‘The Law of Uneven and Combined Development and Latin America’, Latin American Perspectives, Spring 1976, Vol. III, No. II.

Romagnolo, D. (1975). ‘The So-Called ‘Law’ of Uneven and Combined Development’, Latin American Perspectives, Spring 1975, Vol. II, No. I.

Thatcher, I. (1991) ‘Uneven and Combined Development’, Revolutionary Russia, 4: 2, 235-258.

Weaver, F. S. (1974) ‘Relative Backwardness and Cumulative Change: a Comparative Approach to European Industrialization’, Studies in Comparative International Development, volume 9, No.2, 70-97.

contemporary literature (alphabetical)

Allinson, J. (2011) The Social Origins of Alliances: Uneven and Combined Development and the Case of Jordan, 1955-57. PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh.

Allinson, J. (2015) The Struggle for the State in Jordan: The Social Origins of Alliances in the Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris.

Allinson, J. and Anievas, A. (2009) ‘The Uses and Misuses of Uneven and Combined Development: An Anatomy of a Concept’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 22:1.

Allinson, J. and Anievas, A. (2010) ‘The Uneven and Combined Development of the Meiji Restoration: A Passive Revolutionary Road to Capitalist Modernity’, Capital & Class, Special Issue ‘Approaching Passive Revolution’, No. 102.

Allinson, J. and Anievas, A. (2010) ‘Approaching “the International”: Beyond Political Marxism’ in Alexander Anievas (ed) Marxism and World Politics: Contesting Global Capitalism, London: Routledge.

Anievas, A. (2012) ‘1914 in World Historical Perspective: The ‘Uneven’ and ‘Combined’ Origins of the First World War‘, European Journal of International Relations, 19:4.

Anievas, A. (2014) ‘A World After its Own Image? The States-system, Capitalism and Unevenness’, in William Brown, Olaf Corry and Agnes Czajka (eds) International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Milton Keynes: Open University.

Anievas, A. (2014) ‘International Relations between War and Revolution: Wilsonian Diplomacy and the Making of the Treaty of Versailles’, International Politics, 51:5.

Anievas, A. (2014) Capital, the State, and War: Class Conflict and Geopolitics in the Thirty Years’ Crisis, 1914-1945. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Anievas, A. (2015) ‘Revolutions and International Relations: Rediscovering the Classical Bourgeois Revolutions’, European Journal of International Relations, 21:4.

Anievas, A. (2015) ‘Marxist Theory and the Origins of the First World War’, in Alexander Anievas (ed.) Cataclysm 1914: The First World War and the Making of Modern World Politics. Leiden: Brill.

Anievas, A. (2016) ‘History, theory, and contingency in the study of modern international relations: the global transformation revisited‘, International Theory, 8:3.

Alexander A. (2016) ‘Confronting Eurocentrism, Reductionism and Reification in International Historical Sociology: A Reply’, International Politics, 53:5.

Anievas, A. and Nişancıoğlu, K. (2013) ‘What’s at Stake in the Transition Debate? Rethinking the Origins of Capitalism and the “Rise of the West”’, Millennium – Journal of International Studies, 42:1.

Anievas, A. and Nişancıoğlu, K. (2015) How the West Came to Rule: The Geopolitical Origins of Capitalism. London: Pluto.

Anievas, A. and Nişancıoğlu, K. (2016) Why Europe? Anti-Eurocentric Theory, History, and the Rise of Capitalism’,  Spectrum: Journal of Global Studies, 8:1.

Alexander A. andNişancıoğlu, K. (2017), ‘How Did the West Usurp the Rest? Origins of the Great Divergence over the Longue Durée’,  Comparative Studies in Society and History, 59:1. 

Anievas, A. and Matin K. (eds.) (2016) Historical Sociology and World History: Uneven and Combined Development over the Longue Dureé. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Ashman, S. (2009) ‘Capitalism, Uneven and Combined Development and the Transhistoric’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 22:1, 29–46.

Barker, C. (2006) ‘Beyond Trotsky: extending combined and uneven development’ in Bill Dunn and Hugo Radice (eds) 100 Years of Permanent Revolution: Results and Prospects. London: Pluto.

Bhambra, G. K. (2011) “Talking among Themselves? Weberian and Marxist Historical Sociologies as Dialogues without ‘Others’Millennium – Journal of International Studies, 39:3.

Book Symposium on ‘How the West Came to Rule’Spectrum: Journal of Global Studies, 8:1, 2016.

Brennan, T. (2014) Borrowed Light: Vico, Hegel, and the Colonies. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 

Brophy, Susan (2017) ‘An Uneven and Combined Theory of Law: Initiation’, Law Critique, DOI 10.1007/s10978-017-9200-0

Brown, W. (2009) ‘Reconsidering the Aid Relationship: International Relations and Social Development’, The Round Table, 98:402

Bruff, I. (2010) ‘European Varieties of Capitalism and the International’, European Journal of International Relations, 16:4.

Buzan, B. and Lawson, G. (2015) The Global Transformation: History, Modernity and the Making of International Relations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Callinicos, A. (2007) ‘Does Capitalism Need the State System?’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 20:4.

Callinicos, A. and Rosenberg, J. (2008) ‘Uneven and Combined Development: The Social-Relational Substratum of “the International”?: An Exchange of Letters’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 21:1.

Christie, J. and Değirmencioğlu, N. (eds.) (forthcoming). Cultures of Uneven and Combined Development. Leiden: Brill.

Cooper, L. (2013) Explaining the Paradox of Market Reform in Communist China: The Uneven and Combined Development of the Chinese Revolution and the Search for ‘National Salvation’. PhD Thesis, University of Sussex.

Cooper, L. (2013) ‘Can Contingency Be “Internalised” into the Bounds of Theory? Critical Realism, the Philosophy of Internal Relations, and the Solution of “Uneven and Combined Development“‘, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 26:3, pp.573-597.

Cooper, L. (2015) ‘The International Relations of the ‘Imagined Community’: Explaining the Late Nineteenth Century Genesis of the Chinese Nation‘, Review of International Studies, 41:3.

Corry, O. and Brown, W. (2014) ‘Marxism: Uneven and Combined Development’, in William Brown, Olaf Corry and Agnes Czajka (eds) International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics, Milton Keynes: Open University.

Craig, Campbell (2017) ‘When the Whip Comes Down: Marxism, the Soviet Experience, and the Nuclear Revolution’, European Journal of International Security, Vol.II, No.2.

Davenport, A. (2013) ‘Marxism in IR: Condemned to a Realist Fate?‘ European Journal of International Relations, 19:1.

Davidson, N. (2006) ‘From Uneven to Combined Development’, in Bill Dunn and Hugo Radice (eds) 100 Years of Permanent Revolution: Results and Prospects, London: Pluto.

Davidson, N. (2006) ‘China: Unevenness, Combination, Revolution?’ in Bill Dunn and Hugo Radice (eds) 100 Years of Permanent Revolution: Results and Prospects, London: Pluto.

Davidson, N. (2009) ‘Putting the Nation back into “the International”’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 22:1.

Davidson, N. (2017) ‘Uneven and Combined Development: Modernity, Modernism, Revolution (1): The Classic Forms of Uneven and Combined Development‘, rs21.

Davidson, N. (forthcoming) Violating all the laws of history: uneven and combined development in theory and reality (Amsterdam: Brill).

Dufour, F. (2007) ‘Social-property Regimes and the Uneven and Combined Development of Nationalist Practices’, European Journal of International Relations, 13:4.

Dunford, M. and Liu, W. (2016) ‘Uneven and Combined Development’Regional Studies.

Dunn, W. and Radice, H. (eds.) (2006) 100 Years of Permanent Revolution: Results and Prospects.London: Pluto.

Glenn, J. (2012) ‘Uneven and Combined Development: A Fusion of Marxism and Structural Realism‘, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 25:1.

Glenn, J. (2016) China’s Challenge to US Supremacy: Economic Superpower versus Rising Star, London: Palgrave MacMillan.

Green, J. (2012) ‘Uneven and Combined Development and the Anglo-German Prelude to World War I‘, European Journal of International Relations, 18:2.

Green, J. (2014) ‘Beyond Coxian Historicism: 19th Century World Order and the Promise of Uneven and Combined Development‘, Millennium, 42:2.

Hobson, J. H. (2011) ‘What’s at Stake in the Neo-Trotskyist Debate? Towards a Non-Eurocentric Historical Sociology of Uneven and Combined Development‘, Millennium, 40:1.

Joseph, J. (2010) ‘The Limits of Governmentality: Social Theory and the International’, European Journal of International Relations, 16:2.

Kiely, R. (2012) ‘Spatial Hierarchy and/or Contemporary Geopolitics: What can and can’t Uneven and Combined Development Explain?‘, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 25:2.

Kiely, R. (2014) ‘Imperialism or Globalisation?…Or Imperialism and Globalisation. Theorising the International after Rosenberg’s “Post-mortem”‘, Journal of International Relations and Development, 17:2.

Lazarus, Neil. 2016. ‘Vivek Chibber and the Specter of Postcolonial Theory’, Race & Class, 57:3.

Lin, Chun (2003) ‘Uneven and Compressed Development’ in Immanuel Wallerstein and Armand Clesse (eds.) The World We Are Entering, 2000-2050. Dutch University Press, Amsterdam.

Liu, Xin (2016) ‘Anarchy in the East: Eurocentrism, China-centred geopolitics and uneven and combined development’, International Politics, First Online: 04 November 2016, DOI: 10.1057/s41311-016-0007-7, pp.1-22.

Lundborg, T. (2015) ‘The Limits of Historical Sociology: Temporal Borders and the Reproduction of the “Modern” Political Present’, European Journal of International Relations, Online First.

Makki, F. (2011) ‘The Spatial Ecology of Power: Long-Distance Trade and State Formation in Northeast Africa‘, Journal of Historical Sociology, 24:2.

Makki, F. (2011) ‘Empire and Modernity: Dynastic Centralization and Official and Official Nationalism in Late Imperial Ethiopia‘, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 24:2.

Makki, F. (2015) ‘Post-Colonial Africa and the World Economy: The Long Waves of Uneven Development‘, Journal of World-Systems Research, 21:1.

Makki, F. (2015) ‘Reframing Development Theory: The Significance of the Idea of Uneven and Combined Development,’ Theory and Society, 44:5.

Matin, K. (2006) ‘Uneven and Combined Development and “Revolution of Backwardness”: The Iranian Constitutional Revolution, 1906–1911’ in Bill Dunn and Hugo Radice (eds.) 100 Years of Permanent Revolution: Results and Prospects. London: Pluto.

Matin, K. (2007) ‘Uneven and Combined Development in World History: The International Relations of State-formation in Pre-modern Iran’, European Journal of International Relations, 13:3.

Matin, K. (2010) ‘Decoding Political Islam: Uneven and Combined Development and Ali Shariati’s Political Thought’, in Shilliam, R., ed., International Relations and Non-Western Thought: Imperialism, Colonialism and Investigations of Global Modernity. London: Routledge.

Matin, K. (2012) ‘Democracy without Capitalism: Retheorizing Iran’s Constitutional Revolution‘, Middle East Critique, 21:1.

Matin, K. (2012) ‘International Relations in the Making of Political Islam: Interrogating Khomeini’s “Islamic Government”‘, Journal of International Relations and Development, 16.

Matin, K. (2013) ‘Redeeming the Universal: Postcolonialism and the Inner Life of Eurocentricm‘, European Journal of International Relations, 19:2.

Matin, K. (2013). Recasting Iranian Modernity: International Relations and Social Change. London: Routledge.

McCarthy, D. (2013) ‘Technology and ‘the International’ or: How I Stopped Worrying and Love Determinism‘, Millennium, 41:3.

Mc Carthy, D. (2015) Power, Information Technology, and International Relations Theory: The Power and Politics of US Foreign Policy and the Internet. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Mckenna, T. (2015) ‘The Suicide Forest: A Marxist Analysis of the High Suicide Rate in Japan‘, Rethinking Marxism, 27:2.

Moldovan, A. (2017) ‘Uneven and Combined Development and Sub-imperialism: The Internationalization of Brazilian Capital,’ Globalizations, Early View.

Nilsen, A. G. (2015) ‘Passages from Marxism to Postcolonialism: A Comment on Vivek Chibber’s Postcolonial Theory and the Specter of Capital’, Critical Sociology, OnlineFirst, 1-15.

Nişancıoğlu, K. (2013) ‘The Ottoman Origins of Capitalism: Uneven and Combined Development and Eurocentrism‘, Review of International Studies, 40:2.

O’Connor, J. (1989) ‘Uneven and Combined Development and Ecological Crisis: A Theoretical Introduction‘, Race and Class, 30:3.

Rioux, S. (2009) ‘International Historical Sociology: Recovering Sociohistorical Causality‘, Rethinking Marxism, 21:4.

Rioux, S. (2015) ‘Mind the (Theoretical) Gap: On the Poverty of International Relations Theorising of Uneven and Combined Development‘, Global Society, 29:4.

Rioux, S. (2015) ‘The Collapse of “The International Imagination”: A Critique of the Transhistorical Approach to Uneven and Combined Development,’ in Radhika Desai (ed.) Theoretical Engagements in Geopolitical Economy, vol. 30A, Research in Political Economy. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Rolf, S. (2015) ‘Locating the State: Uneven and Combined Development, the States System and the Political,’ in Radhika Desai (ed.) Theoretical Engagements in Geopolitical Economy, vol. 30A, Research in Political Economy. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Rosenberg, J. (1996) ‘Isaac Deutscher and the Lost History of International Relations’, New Left Review I:215.

Rosenberg, J. (2005) ‘Globalization Theory: A Post Mortem’, International Politics 42:1.

Rosenberg, J. (2006) ‘Why is There No International Historical Sociology?European Journal of International Relations, 12: 3.

Rosenberg, J. (2007) ‘International Relations – the “Higher Bullshit”: A Reply to the Globalisation Theory Debate’, International Politics, 44:4.

Rosenberg, J. (2009) ‘Basic Problems in the Theory of Uneven and Combined Development: a reply to the CRIA forum’, Part I, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 22:1.

Rosenberg, J. (2010) ‘Basic problems in the Theory of Uneven and Combined Development. Part II: Unevenness and Political Multiplicity’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 23:1.

Rosenberg, J. (2013) ‘The “Philosophical Premises” of Uneven and Combined Development‘, Review of International Studies, 39:3.

Rosenberg, J. (2013) ‘Kenneth Waltz and Leon Trotsky: Anarchy in the Mirror of Uneven and Combined Development’, International Politics, 50:2.

Rosenberg, J. (2016) ‘Uneven and Combined Development in Theory and History’, in Alexander Anievas and Kamran Matin (eds.) Historical Sociology and World History: Uneven and Combined Development over the Longue DuréeLanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Rosenberg, J. (2016) ‘International Relations in the Prison of Political Science’, International Relations, 30:2.

Rosenberg, Justin (2016) ‘Confessions of a Sociolator’, Millennium – Journal of International Studies, 44:2.

Selwyn, B. (2011) ‘Trotsky, Gerschenkron and the Political Economy of Late Capitalist Development“, Economy and Society, 40:3.

Shilliam, R. (2004) ‘Hegemony and the Unfashionable Problematic of Primitive Accumulation’,Millennium – Journal of International Studies, 33:1.

Shilliam, R. (2009) ‘The Atlantic as a Vector of Uneven and Combined Development’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 22:1.

Shilliam, R. (2009) German Thought and International Relations: The Rise and Fall of a Liberal Project. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave.

Steel, D. (2010) ‘A Combined and Uneven Development Approach to the European Neolithic’, Critique of Anthropology, 30:2.

Taylor, N. (2014) ‘Theorising Capitalist Diversity: The Uneven and Combined Development of Labour Forms,’ Capital & Class, 38:1.

Thomas, P. (2015) ‘Uneven Developments, Combined: The First World War and Marxist Theories of Revolution’, in Alexander Anievas (ed.) Cataclysm 1914: The First World War and the Making of Modern World Politics. Leiden: Brill.

Tooze, A. (2015) ‘Capitalist Peace or Capitalist War? The July Crisis Revisited’, in Alexander Anievas (ed.) Cataclysm 1914: The First World War and the Making of Modern World Politics. Leiden: Brill.

Van der Linden, M. (2007) ‘The “Law” of Uneven and Combined Development: Some Underdeveloped Thoughts’, Historical Materialism, 15.

Van der Pijl, K. (2015) ‘The Uneven and Combined Development of International Historical Sociology,’ in Radhika Desai (ed.) Theoretical Engagements in Geopolitical Economy, vol. 30A, Research in Political Economy. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group.

Yalvaç, F. (2016) “Ibn Khaldûn’s Historical Sociology and the Concept of Change in International Relations Theory,” in Deina Abdelkader et. al. (eds.) Islam and International Relations: Contributions to Theory and Practice. London: Palgrave. 

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