writings

Below is a bibliography of key writings on U&CD.

It begins with the primary sources of the idea in the works of Leon Trotsky. Next follows a selection of key secondary texts which preceded the current revival of interest. Finally comes a list of more recent writings – several of them downloadable from this page – which make up the contemporary literature on the subject.

If you know of further relevant writings, please post the details in the comments box at the bottom of this page.

primary sources

Trotsky, L. (1961) The History of the Russian Revolution (1932), New York: Pathfinder.

Trotsky, L. (1962) The Permanent Revolution (1930) and Results and Prospects (1906), London: New Park Publications.

Trotsky, L. (1970/1936) The Third International After Lenin, New York: Pathfinder.

Trotsky, L. (1972/1937) The Revolution Betrayed, New York: Pathfinder.

Trotsky, L. (1973) 1905 [sic], Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Trotsky, L. (1973) Leon Trotsky on Britain, introduced by G. Novack New York: Pathfinder.

Trotsky, L. (1975/1930) My Life. An Attempt at an Autobiography, Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Trotsky, Leon (1998) Trotsky’s Notebooks, 1933–1935. Writings on Lenin, Dialectics and Evolutionism, edited by Philip Pomper. New York: Columbia University Press.

key secondary texts (up to 1995)

Deutscher, I. (1954) The Prophet Armed, Trotsky: 1879–1921, Oxford: OUP.

Deutscher, I. (1959) The Prophet Unarmed, Trotsky: 1921–1929, Oxford: OUP.

Deutscher, I. (1963) The Prophet Outcast, Trotsky: 1929–1940, Oxford: OUP.

Deutscher, I. (1984) Marxism, Wars and Revolutions, London: Verso.

Elster, J. (1986) ‘The theory of combined and uneven development: a critique’, in Analytical Marxism, edited by J. Roemer, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Horowitz, D. (1969) Imperialism and Revolution: a Radical Interpretation of Contemporary History, New York: Random House.

Knei-Paz, B. (1978) The Social and Political Thought of Leon Trotsky. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Löwy, M. (1981) The Politics of Combined and Uneven Development: The Theory of Permanent Revolution, London: Verso.

Novack, G. (1957) The Irregular Movement of History the Marxist Law of the Combined and Uneven Development of Society. A. Bandara for Spark Publishers.

Novack, G. (1972). Understanding History. Marxist Essays. New York: Pathfinder.

Novack, G. (1976). ‘The Law of Uneven and Combined Development and Latin America’, Latin American Perspectives, Spring 1976, Vol. III, No. II.

Romagnolo, D. (1975). ‘The So-Called ‘Law’ of Uneven and Combined Development’, Latin American Perspectives, Spring 1975, Vol. II, No. I.

Thatcher, I. (1991) ‘Uneven and Combined Development’, Revolutionary Russia, 4: 2, 235-258.

Weaver, F. S. (1974) ‘Relative Backwardness and Cumulative Change: a Comparative Approach to European Industrialization’, Studies in Comparative International Development, volume 9, No.2, 70-97.

contemporary literature (alphabetical)

Allinson, J. (2011) The Social Origins of Alliances: Uneven and Combined Development and the Case of Jordan, 1955-57. PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh.

Allinson, J. (2015) The Struggle for the State in Jordan: The Social Origins of Alliances in the Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris.

Allinson, J. and Anievas, A. (2009) ‘The Uses and Misuses of Uneven and Combined Development: An Anatomy of a Concept’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 22:1.

Allinson, J. and Anievas, A. (2010) ‘The Uneven and Combined Development of the Meiji Restoration: A Passive Revolutionary Road to Capitalist Modernity’, Capital & Class, Special Issue ‘Approaching Passive Revolution’, No. 102.

Allinson, J. and Anievas, A. (2010) ‘Approaching “the International”: Beyond Political Marxism’ in Alexander Anievas (ed) Marxism and World Politics: Contesting Global Capitalism, London: Routledge.

Anievas, A. (2012) ‘1914 in World Historical Perspective: The ‘Uneven’ and ‘Combined’ Origins of the First World War‘, European Journal of International Relations, 19:4.

Anievas, A. (2014) ‘A World After its Own Image? The States-system, Capitalism and Unevenness’, in William Brown, Olaf Corry and Agnes Czajka (eds) International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Milton Keynes: Open University.

Anievas, A. (2014) ‘International Relations between War and Revolution: Wilsonian Diplomacy and the Making of the Treaty of Versailles’, International Politics, 51:5.

Anievas, A. (2014) Capital, the State, and War: Class Conflict and Geopolitics in the Thirty Years’ Crisis, 1914-1945. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Anievas, A. (2015) ‘Revolutions and International Relations: Rediscovering the Classical Bourgeois Revolutions’, European Journal of International Relations, 21:4.

Anievas, A. (2015) ‘Marxist Theory and the Origins of the First World War’, in Alexander Anievas (ed.) Cataclysm 1914: The First World War and the Making of Modern World Politics. Leiden: Brill.

Anievas, A. (2016) ‘History, theory, and contingency in the study of modern international relations: the global transformation revisited‘, International Theory, 8:3.

Anievas, A. (2016) ‘Confronting Eurocentrism, Reductionism and Reification in International Historical Sociology: A Reply’, International Politics, 53:5.

Anievas, A. and Nişancıoğlu, K. (2013) ‘What’s at Stake in the Transition Debate? Rethinking the Origins of Capitalism and the “Rise of the West”’, Millennium – Journal of International Studies, 42:1.

Anievas, A. and Nişancıoğlu, K. (2015) How the West Came to Rule: The Geopolitical Origins of Capitalism. London: Pluto.

Anievas, A. and Nişancıoğlu, K. (2016)‘Why Europe? Anti-Eurocentric Theory, History, and the Rise of Capitalism’, Spectrum: Journal of Global Studies, 8:1.

Anievas A. and Nişancıoğlu, K. (2017), ‘How Did the West Usurp the Rest? Origins of the Great Divergence over the Longue Durée’,  Comparative Studies in Society and History, 59:1. 

Anievas, A. and Matin K. (eds.) (2016) Historical Sociology and World History: Uneven and Combined Development over the Longue Dureé. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Anievas, A and Nişancıoğlu, K. (2017) ‘Limits of the Universal: The Promises and Pitfalls of Postcolonial Theory and Its Critique’, Historical Materialism, 25(3): 36-75.

Anievas, A. and Nişancıoğlu, K. (2018) ‘Lineages of Capital’, Historical Materialism, 26.3 167-196.

Anievas, A and Nişancıoğlu, K. (2019) ‘Troubling Time and Space in World Politics: Reimagining Western Modernity in the Atlantic Mirror’, in James Christie and Nesrin Degirmencioglu (eds.), Cultures of Uneven and Combined Development (Leiden, NL: Brill), 83-113.

Anievas, A. and Matin K. (eds.) (2016) Historical Sociology and World History: Uneven and Combined Development over the Longue Dureé. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Anievas, A. and Saull, R. (2019) ‘Reassessing the Cold War and the Far-Right: Fascist Legacies and the Making of the Liberal International Order after 1945’, International Studies Review, DOI: 10.1093/isr/viz006, pp. 1-26.

Antunes de Oliveira, Felipe (2019) ‘Development for whom? Beyond the developed/underdeveloped dichotomy’, Journal of International Relations and Developmenthttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1057/s41268-019-00173-9

Antunes de Oliveira, Felipe (2019) ‘The rise of the Latin American far-right explained: dependency theory meets uneven and combined development’, Globalizations, DOI: 10.1080/14747731.2019.1567977https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/9pfz2u5DpvujZGx7i2dw/full?target=10.1080/14747731.2019.1567977

Ashman, S. (2009) ‘Capitalism, Uneven and Combined Development and the Transhistoric’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 22:1, 29–46.

Barker, C. (2006) ‘Beyond Trotsky: extending combined and uneven development’ in Bill Dunn and Hugo Radice (eds) 100 Years of Permanent Revolution: Results and Prospects. London: Pluto.

Barker, C. (2019) ‘Value, Force, Many States and Other Problems: Part 3’, unpublished Ms, available online at: https://www.rs21.org.uk/2019/06/07/revolutionary-reflections-value-force-many-states-and-other-problems-part-3/(accessed 06-01-2020).

Bhambra, G. K. (2011) “Talking among Themselves? Weberian and Marxist Historical Sociologies as Dialogues without ‘Others’Millennium – Journal of International Studies, 39:3.

Bieler, Andreas (2013) ‘The EU, Global Europe and Processes of Uneven and Combined Development: The Problem of Transnational Labour Solidarity’, Review of International Studies, 39(1): 161-83.

Bieler, Andreas and Adam David Morton (2014) ‘Uneven and Combined Development and Unequal Exchange: the second wind of neoliberal “free trade”?’, Globalizations, 11:1 (2014): 35-45.

Bieler, Andreas and Adam David Morton (2018) ‘Interlocutions with Passive Revolution’, Thesis Eleven, 147:1, 9-28.

Bieler, Andreas and Adam David Morton (2018), Global Capitalism, Global War, Global Crisis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, esp. Ch. 4 ‘Capitalist Expansion, Uneven and Combined Development and Passive Revolution’, pp. 79-106. 

Book Symposium on ‘How the West Came to Rule’Spectrum: Journal of Global Studies, 8:1, 2016.

Brennan, T. (2014) Borrowed Light: Vico, Hegel, and the Colonies. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 

Brophy, Susan (2017) ‘An Uneven and Combined Theory of Law: Initiation‘, Law Critique, 28:2.

Brown, W. (2009) ‘Reconsidering the Aid Relationship: International Relations and Social Development’, The Round Table, 98:402

Bruff, I. (2010) ‘European Varieties of Capitalism and the International’, European Journal of International Relations, 16:4.

Buzan, B. and Lawson, G. (2015) The Global Transformation: History, Modernity and the Making of International Relations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Callinicos, A. (2007) ‘Does Capitalism Need the State System?’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 20:4.

Callinicos, A. and Rosenberg, J. (2008) ‘Uneven and Combined Development: The Social-Relational Substratum of “the International”?: An Exchange of Letters’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 21:1.

Christie, J. and Değirmencioğlu, N. (eds.) (2019) Cultures of Uneven and Combined Development. Leiden: Brill.

Cooper, L. (2013) Explaining the Paradox of Market Reform in Communist China: The Uneven and Combined Development of the Chinese Revolution and the Search for ‘National Salvation’. PhD Thesis, University of Sussex.

Cooper, L. (2013) ‘Can Contingency Be “Internalised” into the Bounds of Theory? Critical Realism, the Philosophy of Internal Relations, and the Solution of “Uneven and Combined Development“‘, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 26:3.

Cooper, L. (2015) ‘The International Relations of the ‘Imagined Community’: Explaining the Late Nineteenth Century Genesis of the Chinese Nation‘, Review of International Studies, 41:3.

Corry, O. and Brown, W. (2014) ‘Marxism: Uneven and Combined Development’, in William Brown, Olaf Corry and Agnes Czajka (eds) International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics, Milton Keynes: Open University.

Craig, Campbell (2017) ‘When the Whip Comes Down: Marxism, the Soviet Experience, and the Nuclear Revolution’, European Journal of International Security, Vol.II, No.2.

Davenport, A. (2013) ‘Marxism in IR: Condemned to a Realist Fate?‘ European Journal of International Relations, 19:1.

Davidson, N. (2003) Discovering the Scottish Revolution, 1692-1746. Pluto Press: London, UK. ISBN 9780745320533

Davidson, N. (2006) ‘From Uneven to Combined Development’, in Bill Dunn and Hugo Radice (eds) 100 Years of Permanent Revolution: Results and Prospects, London: Pluto.

Davidson, N. (2006) ‘China: Unevenness, Combination, Revolution?’ in Bill Dunn and Hugo Radice (eds) 100 Years of Permanent Revolution: Results and Prospects, London: Pluto.

Davidson, N. (2009) ‘Putting the Nation back into “the International”’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 22:1.

Davidson, N. (2016) The conditions for the emergence of uneven and combined development. In: Anievas, A. and Matin, K. (eds.) Historical Sociology and World History: Uneven and Combined Development in the Longue Durée. Rowman and Littlefield: London, pp. 31-52.

Davidson, N. (2017) ‘Uneven and Combined Development: Modernity, Modernism, Revolution (1): The Classic Forms of Uneven and Combined Development‘, rs21.

Davidson, N. (2018) ‘The “Law” of Uneven and Combined Development: Part 1‘, East Central Europe, 45:1.

Davidson, N. (2018) The lawof uneven and combined development: Part 2. Scope and developments. East Central Europe, 45(2-3), pp. 301-335. (doi:10.1163/18763308-04502011)

Davidson, N. (2017) Realism, modernism, and the spectre of Trotsky, part 1: Lukács. Red Wedge, 3, pp. 37-52.

Davidson, N. (2018) Realism, modernism, and the spectre of Trotsky, part 2: Greenberg. Red Wedge, 4,

Davidson, N. (2018) The frontiers of uneven and combined development: a review essay. Historical Materialism, 26(3), pp. 52-78. (doi:10.1163/1569206X-00001656)

Davidson, N. (2019) Uneven and combined development as a universal aspect of capitalist modernity. In: Christie, J. and Degirmencioglu, N. (eds.) Cultures of Uneven and Combined Development. Brill: Leiden, pp. 17-79.

Davidson, N. (2019) Uneven and combined development: between capitalist modernity and modernism. In: Christie, J. and Degirmencioglu, N. (eds.) Cultures of Uneven and Combined Development, Brill: Leiden, pp. 167-198.

Dufour, F. (2007) ‘Social-property Regimes and the Uneven and Combined Development of Nationalist Practices’, European Journal of International Relations, 13:4.

Dunford, M. and Liu, W. (2016) ‘Uneven and Combined Development’Regional Studies.

Dunn, W. and Radice, H. (eds.) (2006) 100 Years of Permanent Revolution: Results and Prospects.London: Pluto.

Evans, Jessica (2016) ‘The uneven and combined development of class forces: migration as combined development’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs 29:3.

Fabry, A. (2019) The Political Economy of Hungary: From State Capitalism to Authoritarian Neoliberalism. London: Palgrave.

Germann, Julian (2017) ‘Beyond ‘geo-economics’: Advanced unevenness and the anatomy of German austerity’, European Journal of International Relations, 24 (3). pp. 590-613. ISSN 1354-0661.

Glenn, J. (2012) ‘Uneven and Combined Development: A Fusion of Marxism and Structural Realism‘, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 25:1.

Glenn, J. (2016) China’s Challenge to US Supremacy: Economic Superpower versus Rising StarLondon: Palgrave MacMillan.

Green, J. (2012) ‘Uneven and Combined Development and the Anglo-German Prelude to World War I‘, European Journal of International Relations, 18:2.

Green, J. (2014) ‘Beyond Coxian Historicism: 19th Century World Order and the Promise of Uneven and Combined Development‘, Millennium, 42:2.

Hesketh, C. (2017) ‘Passive Revolution: A Universal Concept with Geographical Seats’, Review of International Studies, 43:3, 389-408.

Hobson, J. H. (2011) ‘What’s at Stake in the Neo-Trotskyist Debate? Towards a Non-Eurocentric Historical Sociology of Uneven and Combined Development‘, Millennium, 40:1.

Joseph, J. (2010) ‘The Limits of Governmentality: Social Theory and the International’, European Journal of International Relations, 16:2.

Kasmir, Sharryn and Lesley Gill, “No Smooth Surfaces: The Anthropology of Unevenness and Combination,” Current Anthropology 59, no. 4 (2018): 355-377. With comments from George Baca, Aviva Chomsky, Don Kalb, Winnie Lem, Steve Stiffler, Marion Werner, and Kasmir and Gill reply.

Kiely, R. (2012) ‘Spatial Hierarchy and/or Contemporary Geopolitics: What can and can’t Uneven and Combined Development Explain?‘, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 25:2.

Kiely, R. (2014) ‘Imperialism or Globalisation?…Or Imperialism and Globalisation. Theorising the International after Rosenberg’s “Post-mortem”‘, Journal of International Relations and Development, 17:2.

Lazarus, Neil. 2016. ‘Vivek Chibber and the Specter of Postcolonial Theory’, Race & Class, 57:3.

Le Blanc, Paul and Bryan Palmer (eds.) (2018) U.S. Trotskyism 1928-1965. Part III: Resurgence, Leiden: Brill, especially ‘Introduction: a Party of Uneven and Combined Development’,  1-20.

Lin, Chun (2003) ‘Uneven and Compressed Development’ in Immanuel Wallerstein and Armand Clesse (eds.) The World We Are Entering, 2000-2050. Dutch University Press, Amsterdam.

Liu, Xin (2016) ‘Anarchy in the East: Eurocentrism, China-centred geopolitics and uneven and combined development’, International Politics, First Online: 04 November 2016, DOI: 10.1057/s41311-016-0007-7, pp.1-22.

Lundborg, T. (2015) ‘The Limits of Historical Sociology: Temporal Borders and the Reproduction of the “Modern” Political Present’, European Journal of International Relations, Online First.

Makki, F. (2011) ‘The Spatial Ecology of Power: Long-Distance Trade and State Formation in Northeast Africa‘, Journal of Historical Sociology, 24:2.

Makki, F. (2011) ‘Empire and Modernity: Dynastic Centralization and Official and Official Nationalism in Late Imperial Ethiopia‘, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 24:2.

Makki, F. (2015) ‘Post-Colonial Africa and the World Economy: The Long Waves of Uneven Development‘, Journal of World-Systems Research, 21:1.

Makki, F. (2015) ‘Reframing Development Theory: The Significance of the Idea of Uneven and Combined Development,’ Theory and Society, 44:5.

Matin, K. (2006) ‘Uneven and Combined Development and “Revolution of Backwardness”: The Iranian Constitutional Revolution, 1906–1911’ in Bill Dunn and Hugo Radice (eds.) 100 Years of Permanent Revolution: Results and Prospects. London: Pluto.

Matin, K. (2007) ‘Uneven and Combined Development in World History: The International Relations of State-formation in Pre-modern Iran’, European Journal of International Relations, 13:3.

Matin, K. (2010) ‘Decoding Political Islam: Uneven and Combined Development and Ali Shariati’s Political Thought’, in Shilliam, R., ed., International Relations and Non-Western Thought: Imperialism, Colonialism and Investigations of Global Modernity. London: Routledge.

Matin, K. (2012) ‘Democracy without Capitalism: Retheorizing Iran’s Constitutional Revolution‘, Middle East Critique, 21:1.

Matin, K. (2012) ‘International Relations in the Making of Political Islam: Interrogating Khomeini’s “Islamic Government”‘, Journal of International Relations and Development, 16.

Matin, K. (2013) ‘Redeeming the Universal: Postcolonialism and the Inner Life of Eurocentricm‘, European Journal of International Relations, 19:2.

Matin, K. (2013). Recasting Iranian Modernity: International Relations and Social Change. London: Routledge.

Matin, K. (2018). ‘Lineages of the Islamic State: An International Historical Sociology of State (De-)Formation in Iraq‘, Journal of Historical Sociology, 31:1.

McCarthy, D. (2013) ‘Technology and ‘the International’ or: How I Stopped Worrying and Love Determinism‘, Millennium, 41:3.

McCarthy, D. (2015) Power, Information Technology, and International Relations Theory: The Power and Politics of US Foreign Policy and the Internet. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Mckenna, T. (2015) ‘The Suicide Forest: A Marxist Analysis of the High Suicide Rate in Japan‘, Rethinking Marxism, 27:2.

Medved, M. (2018) ‘Introduction: East Central Europe and the Problematic of the International’,  East Central Europe, 45:1.

Medved, M. (2018) ‘Trotsky or Wallerstein? Approaching the Habsburg Monarchy in the Nineteenth Century‘, East Central Europe, 45:1.

Moldovan, A. (2018) ‘Uneven and Combined Development and Sub-imperialism: The Internationalization of Brazilian Capital,’ Globalizations, 15.3, 314-328.

Morton AD (2010) ‘Reflections on Uneven Development: Mexican Revolution, Primitive Accumulation, Passive Revolution.’ Latin American Perspectives 37(1): 7-34.

Morton, Adam David (2007) Unravelling Gramsci: Hegemony and Passive Revolution in the Global Economy. London: Pluto.

Morton A.D. (2011) Revolution and State in Modern Mexico: The Political Economy of Uneven Development, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Nilsen, A. G. (2015) ‘Passages from Marxism to Postcolonialism: A Comment on Vivek Chibber’s Postcolonial Theory and the Specter of Capital’, Critical Sociology, OnlineFirst, 1-15.

Nişancıoğlu, K. (2013) ‘The Ottoman Origins of Capitalism: Uneven and Combined Development and Eurocentrism‘, Review of International Studies, 40:2.

O’Connor, J. (1989) ‘Uneven and Combined Development and Ecological Crisis: A Theoretical Introduction‘, Race and Class, 30:3.

Peck, Jamie (2019) ‘Combination’ in Keywords in Radical Geography: Antipode at 50, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken: New Jersey, pp.50-55.

Rioux, S. (2009) ‘International Historical Sociology: Recovering Sociohistorical Causality‘, Rethinking Marxism, 21:4.

Rioux, S. (2015) ‘Mind the (Theoretical) Gap: On the Poverty of International Relations Theorising of Uneven and Combined Development‘, Global Society, 29:4.

Rioux, S. (2015) ‘The Collapse of “The International Imagination”: A Critique of the Transhistorical Approach to Uneven and Combined Development,’ in Radhika Desai (ed.) Theoretical Engagements in Geopolitical Economy, vol. 30A, Research in Political Economy. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Rolf, S. (2015) ‘Locating the State: Uneven and Combined Development, the States System and the Political,’ in Radhika Desai (ed.) Theoretical Engagements in Geopolitical Economy, vol. 30A, Research in Political Economy. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Rosenberg, J. (1996) ‘Isaac Deutscher and the Lost History of International Relations’, New Left Review I:215.

Rosenberg, J. (2005) ‘Globalization Theory: A Post Mortem’, International Politics 42:1.

Rosenberg, J. (2006) ‘Why is There No International Historical Sociology?European Journal of International Relations, 12: 3.

Rosenberg, J. (2007) ‘International Relations – the “Higher Bullshit”: A Reply to the Globalisation Theory Debate’, International Politics, 44:4.

Rosenberg, J. (2008) ‘Anarchy in the Mirror of “Uneven and Combined Development”. An Open Letter to Kenneth Waltz’. Paper presented at the British-German IR Conference, BISA/DVPW, 16-18 May, Arnoldshain, Germany. [The original draft of ‘Kenneth Waltz and Leon Trotsky etc.’ below (2013).]

Rosenberg, J. (2009) ‘Basic Problems in the Theory of Uneven and Combined Development: a reply to the CRIA forum’, Part I, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 22:1.

Rosenberg, J. (2010) ‘Basic problems in the Theory of Uneven and Combined Development. Part II: Unevenness and Political Multiplicity’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 23:1.

Rosenberg, J. (2013) ‘The “Philosophical Premises” of Uneven and Combined Development‘, Review of International Studies, 39:3.

Rosenberg, J. (2013) ‘Kenneth Waltz and Leon Trotsky: Anarchy in the Mirror of Uneven and Combined Development’, International Politics, 50:2.

Rosenberg, J. (2016) ‘Uneven and Combined Development in Theory and History’, in Alexander Anievas and Kamran Matin (eds.) Historical Sociology and World History: Uneven and Combined Development over the Longue DuréeLanham, MD:Rowman & Littlefield.

Rosenberg, J. (2016) ‘International Relations in the Prison of Political Science’, International Relations, 30:2.

Rosenberg, Justin (2016) ‘Confessions of a Sociolator’, Millennium – Journal of International Studies, 44:2.

Rosenberg, J. (2017) ‘The Elusive International’International Relations, Vol. 31, Issue 1, 2017, pp.90-103.

Rosenberg, Justin and Chris Boyle (2019) ‘Understanding 2016: China, Brexit and Trump in the History of Uneven and Combined Development’, Journal of Historical Sociology, 1-27.

Rosenberg, Justin (2019) ‘Trotsky’s Error: multiplicity and the secret origins of revolutionary Marxism, Globalizations, DOI: 10.1080/14747731.2019.1665389, 1-21.

Shapiro, Stephen and Neil Lazarus (2018) “Translatability, Combined Unevenness, and World Literature in Antonio Gramsci’. Mediations 32.1 (Fall 2018) 1-36.

Schwarz, Roberto (2019) To the Victor, the Potatoes!(Historical Materialism Book Series, Volume: 206), Leiden: Brill.

Selwyn, B. (2011) ‘Trotsky, Gerschenkron and the Political Economy of Late Capitalist Development“, Economy and Society, 40:3.

Shilliam, R. (2004) ‘Hegemony and the Unfashionable Problematic of Primitive Accumulation’, Millennium – Journal of International Studies, 33:1.

Shilliam, R. (2009) ‘The Atlantic as a Vector of Uneven and Combined Development’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 22:1.

Shilliam, R. (2009) German Thought and International Relations: The Rise and Fall of a Liberal Project. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave.

Smith, N. (2006) ‘The Geography of Uneven Development’ in 100 Years of Permanent Revolution. Results and Prospects, edited by Bill Dunn and Hugo Radice, London: Pluto Press, 180-195.

Steel, D. (2010) ‘A Combined and Uneven Development Approach to the European Neolithic’, Critique of Anthropology, 30:2.

Taylor, N. (2014) ‘Theorising Capitalist Diversity: The Uneven and Combined Development of Labour Forms,’ Capital & Class, 38:1.

Teschke, Benno (2003) The myth of 1648: class, geopolitics and the making of modern international relations. Verso. ISBN 9781859846933. Especially Chapter 8: ‘Towards the Modern States-System: International Relations from Absolutism to Capitalism’.

Teschke, Benno (2014) ‘IR theory, historical materialism, and the false promise of international historical sociologySpectrum: Journal of Global Studies, 6 (1). pp. 1-66. ISSN 1308-8432

Thomas, P. (2015) ‘Uneven Developments, Combined: The First World War and Marxist Theories of Revolution’, in Alexander Anievas (ed.) Cataclysm 1914: The First World War and the Making of Modern World Politics. Leiden: Brill.

Tooze, A. (2015) ‘Capitalist Peace or Capitalist War? The July Crisis Revisited’, in Alexander Anievas (ed.) Cataclysm 1914: The First World War and the Making of Modern World Politics. Leiden: Brill.

Van der Linden, M. (2007) ‘The “Law” of Uneven and Combined Development: Some Underdeveloped Thoughts’, Historical Materialism, 15.

Van der Pijl, K. (2015) ‘The Uneven and Combined Development of International Historical Sociology,’ in Radhika Desai (ed.) Theoretical Engagements in Geopolitical Economy, vol. 30A, Research in Political Economy. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group.

Yalvaç, F. (2016) “Ibn Khaldûn’s Historical Sociology and the Concept of Change in International Relations Theory,” inDeina Abdelkader et. al. (eds.) Islam and International Relations: Contributions to Theory and Practice. London: Palgrave. 

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